Cystinuria-specific rBAT(R365W) mutation reveals two translocation pathways in the amino acid transporter rBAT-b0,+AT.

TitleCystinuria-specific rBAT(R365W) mutation reveals two translocation pathways in the amino acid transporter rBAT-b0,+AT.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2004
AuthorsPineda, Marta, Wagner Carsten A., Bröer Angelika, Stehberger Paul A., Kaltenbach Simone, Gelpí Josep-Lluis, Del Río Rafael Martín, Zorzano Antonio, Palacín Manuel, Lang Florian, and Bröer Stefan
JournalBiochem J
Date Published2004 Feb 1
KeywordsAmino Acid Substitution, Amino Acid Transport System ASC, Amino Acid Transport Systems, Animals, Arginine, Basic, Carrier Proteins, Cell Line, Cystinuria, Female, HeLa Cells, Humans, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mutation, Oocytes, Transfection, Tryptophan, Tumor, Xenopus laevis

Apical reabsorption of dibasic amino acids and cystine in kidney is mediated by the heteromeric amino acid antiporter rBAT/b(0,+)AT (system b(0,+)). Mutations in rBAT cause cystinuria type A, whereas mutations in b(0,+)AT cause cystinuria type B. b(0,+)AT is the catalytic subunit, whereas it is believed that rBAT helps the routing of the rBAT/b(0,+)AT heterodimeric complex to the plasma membrane. In the present study, we have functionally characterized the cystinuria-specific R365W (Arg(365)–>Trp) mutation of human rBAT, which in addition to a trafficking defect, alters functional properties of the b(0,+) transporter. In oocytes, where human rBAT interacts with the endogenous b(0,+)AT subunit to form an active transporter, the rBAT(R365W) mutation caused a defect of arginine efflux without altering arginine influx or apparent affinities for intracellular or extracellular arginine. Transport of lysine or leucine remained unaffected. In HeLa cells, functional expression of rBAT(R365W)/b(0,+)AT was observed only at the permissive temperature of 33 degrees C. Under these conditions, the mutated transporter showed 50% reduction of arginine influx and a similar decreased accumulation of dibasic amino acids. Efflux of arginine through the rBAT(R365W)/b(0,+)AT holotransporter was completely abolished. This supports a two-translocation-pathway model for antiporter b(0,+), in which the efflux pathway in the rBAT(R365W)/b(0,+)AT holotransporter is defective for arginine translocation or dissociation. This is the first direct evidence that mutations in rBAT may modify transport properties of system b(0,+).